Integrated Circuits are usually called ICs or chips.
An IC chip is a complex circuit which contains thousands of electrical components such as transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors etc. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today e.g computers, audio and video equipment, automobiles and therefore,we can say that ICs have revolutionized the world of electronics.
- Flat and DIP packages are available. DIP packages are preferred due to low price and easy installation on circuit boards.
Advantages of IC s:
- Very small size
- Low cost
- Reduced power consumption
- Highly reliable
- Higher operating speed
- Reduced external wiring connections
Generation of IC Technology:
SSI (Small-Scale integration):
SSI contains several logic gates in 1 IC.
MSI (Medium-Scale integration):
MSI contains 10-100 gates in 1 IC.
LSI (Large-Scale integration):
contains 100 - 1000 gates in 1 IC.
VLSI (Very Large-Scale integration):
contains thousands of gates in 1 IC.
Classification of ICs:
Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip).
Digital integrated circuits:
Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, and other circuits in a few square millimeters. Smaller the size, higher is speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. These digital ICs, make use of "0" and "1" only to operate.
Analog Integrated Circuits:
Analog ICs, such as sensors, power management circuits, and operational amplifiers, work by processing continuous signals. tThe most common functions they perform are amplification, active filtering, demodulation, mixing, etc.
Mixed Integrated Circuits:
ICs can also combine analog and digital circuits on a single chip to create functions such as A/D converters and D/A converters. Such circuits offer smaller size and lower cost, but must carefully account for signal interference.