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Router - Definition, Router Mode or Sub Systems

Definition:

A router is a device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges packets of data between them i.e it connects a LAN to a WAN or a WAN to a WAN. Different types of routers exist. They can be edge router which is fixed at the edge of the network, Subscriber edge router, core router, Broadband Routers and many more.A router operates in two modes or sub-systems:

Control mode:

Where a router builds a table (called routing table) as how a packet should be forwarded through which interface, by using either static routes or by exchanging information with other routers in the network through a dynamical routing protocol.

Forwarding mode:

Where the router actually forwards traffic (called packets in IP) from incoming interfaces to an outgoing interface that is appropriate for the destination address that the packet carries with it, by following rules derived from the routing table that has been built in the control plane. Because a router has to make wide area network routing decisions, router has to dig down into the network layer of the packet to retrieve the network destination address. Thus, routers are often called

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