By far the most effective wave dissipater is the short-tube type of underpass suppressor. The name “short-tube” is used because the structure has many of the characteristics of the short-tube discussed
Civil Engineering Dictionary
Water Resources Irrigation & Hydraulic Structures
- Haseeb Jamal
- Water Res Irrigation & Hydraulic Structures
A cross regulator is a structure constructed across a canal to regulate the water level in the canal upstream of itself and the discharge passing downstream of it for one or more of the following purposes...
The distributary head regulator is constructed at the upstream end (i.e., the head) of a channel where it takes off from the main canal or a branch canal or a major distributary.
Irrigation canals are constructed with some permissible bed slopes so that there is no silting or scouring in the canal bed. But it is not always possible to run the canal at the desired bed slope throughout the alignment due to the fluctuating nature of the country slope.
Spur dikes (or groynes) are structures constructed projecting from a bank to protect the bank from erosion. These are widely used for the purpose of river training and serve one or more of the following functions:
Surge tank (or surge chamber) is a device introduced within a hydropower water conveyance system having a rather long pressure conduit to absorb the excess pressure rise in case of a sudden valve closure.
In any hydropower projects the diversion structures occupies the key position. Among these diverging structures weir is the most commonly used structure, because of its simple design and operation.
Scour is the result of the erosive action of flowing water excavating and carrying away material from the bed and banks of streams. Potential scour can be a significant factor in the analysis of a stream crossing system.