The osmotic pressure is a pressure that must be applied to a more concentrated solution to bring about equilibrium between the solvent in two solutions of different concentrations that are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Dictionary of Chemical Engineering Processes
All plastics are polymers mostly containing carbon and hydrogen and few other elements like chlorine, nitrogen, etc. Polymers are made up of small molecules, called monomers, which combine together and form large molecules, called polymers.
Gasification process consists of two parts, a liquefaction step and an entrained bed gasifier. In the liquefaction step the plastic waste is mildly thermally cracked (Depolymerization) into a synthetic heavy oil and some condensable and non-condensable gas fractions.
The flow is said to be turbulent when all the transport quantities (mass, momentum and energy) exhibit periodic, irregular fluctuations in time and space. Such conditions enhance mixing of these transport variables. Reynolds number serves as an important criterion for classifying the flow regime.
Corrosion is an operating concern in nearly all sweetening installations. The combination of H2S and CO2 with water practically ensures that corrosive conditions will exist in portions of the plant.
A catalyst is a substance that, without itself undergoing any permanent chemical change, increases the rate of a reaction. There are two types of catalytic reactions.
Refrigeration systems are common in the natural gas processing industry and processes related to the petroleum refining, petrochemical, and chemical industries. Several applications for refrigeration include NGL recovery
Any material that can be burnt to release thermal energy is called a fuel. Primarily hydrogen and carbon are most familiar fuels that are called hydrocarbons and chemically represented by general formula CnHn
Purpose of every chemical reaction is to produce desired output by starting input material with succession of steps of reaction. The raw material (input) is treated with much physical treatment to meet required condition of favorable reaction.
Stabilizers are basically the chemical agents used in polymer processing to stabilize a chemical compound by the reaction of another chemical agent. There are mainly two types of stabilizers:
Liquid-liquid separators are also called decanters or settlers. The flow to the settler consists of a dispersed phase and a continuous phase, and the function of a settler is to coalesce and separate the dispersed phase from the continuous phase.
Catalysts change the reaction mechanism and therefore the rate of the reaction. Packed bed catalytic reactors are specially designed reactors that accelerate the rate of reaction by the use of latest technological equipment.
Pultrusion is a continuous process whereby reinforcing fibers are first pulled through a resin bath, then into a shaping and forming guide system and finally into a die where the product is generally heated and cured to its nominal dimensions.
Metal injection molding (MIM) is a form of powder metallurgy process that is ideally suited for the production of small complex parts. Its main advantage lies in its ability to produce finished parts to net-shape, requiring little or no expensive secondary operations.
Sulphonation is the introduction of a sulfonic acid group (–SO3H) into an organic compound as, for example, in the production of an aromatic sulfonic acid from the corresponding aromatic hydrocarbon.